Tag: current affairs in english

Current Affairs March 2022 Volume 1

Current Affairs March 2022 Volume 1

Question:- 1

Which country recently announced that they were using ‘Kalibr cruise missiles’?

[B] Russia
[C] Ukraine

Right Answer is:- Russia

Brief:- Russian defence authorities recently announced that they were using Kalibr cruise missiles among other heavy weapons against Ukraine. Ships and submarines from the Northern and Black Sea launched Kalibr cruise missiles and Zircon hypersonic missiles at sea and land targets. An aircraft launching a Kinzhal hypersonic ballistic missile and striking a land target was also released.

Question:- 2

‘iDEX Start-ups’, which were seen in the news recently, are associated with which sector?

[A] Fin-Tech
[B] Defence
[C] Artificial-Intelligence
[D] Agriculture

Right Answer is:- Defence

Brief:- Defence Acquisition Council (DAC), under the chairmanship of Defence Minister Rajnath Singh, has cleared the procurement of 14 items for over 380 crore rupees from the Innovations for Defence Excellence (iDEX) startups or MSMEs. These items will be procured by the Indian Army, Navy and Air Force. The DAC also approved the new simplified procedure for procurement from the iDEX startups and MSMEs.

Question:- 3

The world’s largest aircraft, An-225, nicknamed ‘Mriya’ was owned by which country?

[A] Russia
[B] Ukraine
[D] France

Right Answer is:- Ukraine

Brief:- The world’s largest aircraft, An-225, nicknamed ‘Mriya’ or ‘Dream’ was owned by Ukraine and it was destroyed during the Russian invasion. During the Russian assault, the aircraft was stationed at the Antonov Airport for maintenance work. Antonov is a Ukrainian aircraft manufacturing and services company, headquartered at Kyiv, Ukraine.

Question:- 4

Which state/UT hosted India’s First Ice Wall Climbing Competition?

[A] Himachal Pradesh
[B] Ladakh
[C] Uttarakhand
[D] Sikkim

Right Answer is:- Ladakh

Brief:- An ice-wall climbing competition was organized by the North-West frontier Indo-Tibetan Border Police Force in Ladakh. The competition was held in collaboration with the Ladakh Mountaineering Guide Association (LMGA). This is the first time that an ice climbing competition was organized in India.

Question:- 5

Ashneer Grover, was the Co-founder and Managing Director of which fin-tech company?

[A] PhonePe
[B] PayTm
[C] BharatPe

Right Answer is:- BharatPe

Brief:- Ashneer Grover is the co-founder and MD of BharatPe. He along with Shashvat Nakrani had co-founded the digital payments platform BharatPe in 2018. The company serves over 75 lakh merchants across 150 cities. He is also currently one of the judges of Shark Tank India.

Question:- 6

Which is the venue of the 2022 ISSF World Cup?

[A] Cairo
[B] Paris
[C] Budapest
[D] Moscow

Right Answer is:- Cairo

Brief:- The International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) World Cup 2022 was held in Cairo, Egypt from 26th February to 8th March 2022. Overview: With a total of seven medals, the Indian team took first place in the medals tally, with four gold, two silver, and one bronze.

Question:- 7

‘Swachh Survekshan (SS)’ is an initiative of which Union Ministry?

[A] Ministry of Rural Development
[B] Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs
[C] Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare
[D] Ministry of Home Affairs

Right Answer is:- Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs

Brief:- Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA) launched the field assessment for seventh consecutive edition of Swachh Survekshan (SS). It is claimed to be the world’s largest urban cleanliness survey, Swachh Survekshan (SS), was launched on 1st March 2022 by the Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs (MoHUA). The survey would capture the initiatives of cities for the overall well-being of frontline sanitation workers.

Question:- 8

What is the theme for WHO’s World Hearing Day 2022?

[A] To hear for life, listen with care!
[B] Hearing to all and by all
[C] Hear the needs of vulnerable
[D] To Hear is to listen

Right Answer is:- To hear for life, listen with care!

Brief:- Every year, 3rd March is organized as World Hearing Day by the World Health Organisation. This year the World Hearing Day is being organized with the theme “To hear for life, listen with care!”. This year, WHO will focus on the importance of safe listening as a means of maintaining good hearing across the life course.

Question:- 9

‘NotPetya’ and ‘HermeticWiper’ which were seen in the news recently, are associated with which field?

[A] Agriculture
[B] Cyber-security
[C] Crypto-currency
[D] Defence Equipmen

Right Answer is:- Cyber-security

Brief:- New data-wiping malware known as HermeticWiper has attacked hundreds of computers in Ukraine in a series of cyber-attacks after Russia’s invasion. In June 2017, the world witnessed most destructive malware ever deployed named NotPetya, with Ukraine as its primary target. It quickly spread to more than 60 countries, destroying the computer systems of thousands of multinationals.

Question:- 10

Hollongi, which was seen in the news, is a city located in which state/UT?

[A] Meghalaya
[B] Arunachal Pradesh
[C] Rajasthan
[D] Odisha

Right Answer is:- Arunachal Pradesh

Brief:- Airports Authority of India has undertaken the work of constructing a Greenfield Airport in Hollongi, in the state of Arunachal Pradesh. It is located at 15 kms from the state’s capital city of Itanagar. The Greenfield Airport will be constructed with an estimated amount of Rs 645 crores and will be operational from 15 August 2022.


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Current Affairs February 2022 Volume 4

Current Affairs February 2022 Volume 4

Question:- 1

Which country’s researchers have found out that Climate change is driving plants to flower earlier?

[A] India
[C] UK
[D] Australia

Right answer is:- UK

Brief:- As per a recent study by UK researchers, it has been found that Climate change is driving plants to flower earlier and earlier. The average first flowering date of UK plants is a month earlier than it was before 1986. As per the research team, Plants flowering too early could be disastrous for hibernating and migrating animals, and for crops.

Question:- 2

What is the share of the Government of India in the ‘National Land Monetisation Corporation (NLMC)’?

[A] 100 per cent
[B] 75 per cent
[C] 51 per cent
[D] 49 per cent

Right answer is:- 100 per cent

Brief:- The government has set up a National Land Monetisation Corporation (NLMC) to fast-track monetisation of land and non-core assets of public sector entities, as per the Economic Survey. NLMC is being incorporated as a 100 per cent Government of India owned entity with an initial authorised share capital of Rs 5,000 crore. CPSEs have referred 3,400 acres of land and other non-core assets for monetisation, so far.

Question:- 3

RAMP Programme, which was announced in the Union Budget, aims to improve productivity of which sector?

[A] Agriculture
[C] Textile
[D] Coal

Right answer is:- MSME

Brief:- A 6,000- crore Raising and Accelerating MSME Performance (RAMP) programme for MSMEs has been announced in the Union Budget, which will be rolled out in the coming five years. The programme would improve the competitiveness and productivity of MSMEs. The World Bank in June 2021 had approved USD 500 million for the programme to support the government to support the MSMEs impacted by the Covid crisis.

Question:- 4

Union Budget announced a fund to finance start-ups for agriculture and rural enterprise, facilitated through which institution?

[A] State Bank of India

Right answer is:- NABARD

Brief:- The Union Budget announced a fund with blended capital, raised under co-investment model, will be facilitated through NABARD. It will be used to finance start-ups for agriculture and rural enterprise. The Government would promote the use of ‘Kisan Drones’ for crop assessment, digitisation of land records and spraying of insecticides.

Question:- 5

What is the objective of the ‘Parvat Mala’ scheme announced recently?

[A] Promotion of Adventure Sports
[B] Transportation in Hills
[C] Promotion of Pilgrimage Sites
[D] Protection of Wildlife

Right answer is:- Transportation in Hills

Brief:- The Union Budget announced a new scheme called ‘Parvat Mala’ or National Ropeways Development Programme. The scheme will be launched for regions like Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, J&K, and the northeast to facilitate a modern system of transportation and connectivity in hills.

Question:- 6

Which country inaugurated the Ijmuiden Sea Lock, the world’s largest sea lock?

[B] The Netherlands
[C] Australia

Right answer is:- The Netherlands

Brief:- Dutch King Willem-Alexander officially opened the Ijmuiden Sea Lock, which is claimed to be the largest sea lock in the world. The 500-metre long and 70-metre-wide structure replaces a smaller 100-year-old one at Ijmuiden, a port city connecting the North Sea Canal to the port of Amsterdam. The structure is deep enough that ships will not have to wait for a favourable water level to enter the canal.

Question:- 7

Scheme for enhancement of competitiveness of capital goods sector’ is associated with which Ministry?

[A] Ministry of Steel
[B] Ministry of Heavy Industries
[C] Ministry of Textiles
[D] Ministry of Commerce and Industry

Right answer is:- Ministry of Heavy Industries

Brief:- Ministry of Heavy Industries notified the second phase of the scheme for enhancement of competitiveness in the capital goods sector. The scheme was notified with a financial outlay of ₹1,207 crore. It would consist of a budgetary support from the government of 975 crore and the rest of 232 crore would come through the industry contribution.

Question:- 8

Which state launched ‘Project Sadbhawana’ to improve Governance?

[A] New Delhi
[B] Madhya Pradesh
[C] Assam
[D] Odisha

Right answer is:- Assam

Brief:- Assam Chief Minister Himanta Biswa Sarma launched “Project Sadbhawana”. It aims to dispose over 4-5 lakh pending files lying in the State secretariat within a year. A portal will be created where people can inform of their pending files. Along with project Sadbhavana, a Swachhata Abhiyan in Janata Bhawan will also be launched to promote cleanliness in all the departments in the Secretariat.

Question:- 9

‘Lake Albert’ is located as a border between which two countries?

[A] Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo
[B] Algeria-Libya
[C] South Africa- Tanzania
[D] Uganda- Ethiopia

Right answer is:- Uganda-Democratic Republic of Congo

Brief:- Lake Albert of Africa is located on the border between Uganda and the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is one of Africa’s Great Lakes. It is formerly known as Lake Mobutu Sese Seko. It is located in Albertine Rift, which is the western branch of East African Rift. The primary inflows of this lake are Victoria Nile and Semliki River.

Question:- 10

Which Union Ministry released the publication titled ‘Energy statistics India – 2022’?

[A] Ministry Of Statistics And Programme Implementation
[B] Ministry of Power
[C] Ministry of Coal
[D] Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

Right answer is:- Ministry Of Statistics And Programme Implementation

Brief:- Ministry Of Statistics And Programme Implementation released the 28th edition of the publication, ‘Energy statistics India – 2022’. It is a repository of statistics on energy resources and highlights India’s commitment and progress made in sustainable energy systems. The publication presents the concepts of production, consumption, trade, energy balance etc. The data is collected from Ministry of Coal, Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas, Ministry of Power, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy.

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current affairs February 2022 volume 3

current affairs February 2022 volume 3

Current Affairs February 2022 Volume  3

Question:- 1

Which type of villages are the beneficiaries of the newly announced ‘Vibrant Villages programme’?

[A] Coastal Villages
[B] Border Villages
[C] Hilly villages
[D] ODF Villages

Right answer is:- Border Villages

Brief:- The Union Budget has announced a new scheme called ‘Vibrant Villages programme’, which aims to boost the infrastructure of the villages along India’s border, especially with China. Under the programme, additional funding will be provided, existing schemes will be converged. Activities include housing, tourist centres, road connectivity, provisioning of decentralised renewable energy, DTH access for Doordarshan and educational channels, and livelihood support.

Question:- 2

The United States recently announced which country as its major non-NATO ally?

[B] Qatar
[C] Israel
[D] Japan

Right answer is:- Qatar

Brief:- US President Joe Biden designated Qatar a major non-NATO ally, during a meeting with the ruling leader of Qatar at the White House. This is seen as a symbolic honour to Qatar for its assistance with evacuations from Afghanistan and in ending last year’s Israel-Hamas war in Gaza.

Question:- 3

As per the Economic Survey 2021-22, what is the estimated GDP Growth of India in 2022-23?

[A] 9.2-9.7 %
[B] 8.2-8.7 %
[C] 8.0-8.5 %
[D] 10.0 – 10.5 %

Right answer is:- 8.0-8.5 %

Brief:- The Economic Survey 2021-22 has projected the Indian economy to grow at 8.0-8.5 per cent in 2022-23. A 9.2 per cent expansion for 2021-22 has been outlined by the National Statistical Office (NSO) in its first advance estimates of GDP. This year’s growth comes on a low base year economic output and the expansion of next year would be seen from the recovery levels in economic output.

Question:- 4

As per Union Budget 2022-23, what is the new Alternate Minimum Tax (AMT) for Cooperative societies?

[A] 10 per cent
[B] 12.5 per cent
[C] 15 per cent
[D] 17.5 per cent

Right answer is:- 15 per cent

Brief:- The Union Budget has reduced the Alternate Minimum Tax (AMT) to be paid by Cooperative societies to 15 per cent. At present, cooperative societies are required to pay AMT at the rate of 18.5 per cent, while companies pay the same at 15 per cent. The Budget proposed to reduce the surcharge from the 12 per cent to 7 per cent, for cooperatives with total income of Rs 1 crore up to Rs 10 crore.

Question:- 5

As per recent Government data, what is the total number of new leprosy cases detected during 2020-21 in India?

[A] 5,147
[B] 25,147
[C] 65,147
[D] 95,147

Right answer is:- 65,147

Brief:- As per the latest data from National Leprosy Eradication Programme (NLEP), a total of 65,147 new leprosy cases were detected during the year 2020-21 in India. Leprosy, caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium leprae, affects the peripheral nervous system causing skin lesions, numbness, and other deformities. India accounts for over half of the world’s new leprosy patients. According to NLEP’s 2020-2021 report, 94.75% of patients in India were cured.

Question:- 6

Which Indian state/UT launched the ‘CLAP’ programme?

[A] New Delhi
[B] Andhra Pradesh
[C] Chhattisgarh
[D] Odisha

Right answer is:- Andhra Pradesh

Brief:- The Andhra Pradesh government started the Clean Andhra Pradesh (CLAP)-Jagananna Swachha Sankalpam programme. It aims to clean up rural areas, improve sanitation conditions and waste management with public participation. Besides door-to-door collection of garbage, the campaign aims for segregation of liquid and solid waste, onsite waste treatment, and encouraging home composting.

Question:- 7

The Lunar New Year 2022 marks the start of Year of which animal?

[A] Year of Ox
[B] Year of Tiger
[C] Year of Pig
[D] Year of Lion

Right answer is:- Year of Tiger

Brief:- The Lunar New Year was observed on February 1, 2022. It also known as the Chinese New Year or the Spring Festival in China. The celebration marks the end of the Year of the Ox and the start of the Year of the Tiger. The New Year is celebrated by nearly 2 billion people in Korea, Singapore, Mongolia, Tibet, Vietnam and in Asian communities, for more than two weeks.

Question:- 8

Which country funded the ‘Cosmo-SkyMed Second Generation’ CSG 2 satellite, launched by SpaceX?

[B] Italy
[C] Germany
[D] Israel

Right answer is:- Italy

Brief:- Italian Space Agency, the Italian Ministry of Defense and the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Scientific Research funded the Cosmo-SkyMed Second Generation FM2 (CSG-2) satellite. It was launched aboard the two-stage SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket by SpaceX from Florida station. The system consists of two satellites, which are designed to observe Earth using synthetic aperture radar (SAR).

Question:- 9

Antonio Costa, has been re-elected as the Prime Minister of which country?

[A] Italy
[B] Portugal
[C] Germany
[D] Israel

Right answer is:- Portugal

Brief:- Antonio Costa is serving as the current Prime Minister of Portugal since 2015. The 60-year old leader of Socialist Party has been re-elected for the second term in the snap general election. The vote was called in November last year after former Communist and Left Bloc allies joined the right to strike down his minority government budget.

Question:- 10

‘‘Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala’, the nomination for World Heritage List, are located in which state?

[A] Kerala
[B] Karnataka
[C] Gujarat
[D] Rajasthan

Right answer is:- Karnataka

Brief:- The Hoysala Temples of Belur, Halebid and Somnathapura in Karnataka have been finalised as India’s nomination for World Heritage List for the year 2022-2023. This was announced by the Union Culture Ministry. The ‘Sacred Ensembles of the Hoysala’ are on UNESCO’s Tentative list since 2014.

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Current Affairs February 2022 Volume 2

Current Affairs February 2022 MCQs Format

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February Current Affairs Volume 2


Sergio Mattarella has been elected as the President of which country for the second term?

[A] Brazil
[B] Italy
[C] France
[D] Ukraine

Right answer is:- Italy

Brief:- Italian President Sergio Mattarella has been elected to a second term in the recent round of elections. Mattarella was reconfirmed with a broad majority, in the voting done by lawmakers and regional representatives. The 80-year old Jurist-Academic has been serving as the country’s President since 2015.


‘HERMES Mission’ seen in the news is associated with country?

[B] Russia
[C] China

Right answer is:- USA

Brief:- HERMES stands for Heliophysics Environmental and Radiation Measurement Experiment Suite. It is a critical part of NASA’s Artemis mission HERMES is a four-instrument suite to be mounted outside NASA’s Moon-orbiting Gateway, and has recently passed a critical mission review. HERMES will monitor the space weather and the fluctuating conditions in space driven by the Sun.


Which company has started India’s first project of mixing Hydrogen into Natural Gas System?

[D] Power Grid Corporation

Right answer is:- GAIL

Brief:- Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL) has commenced India’s first-of-its-kind project of mixing Hydrogen into Natural gas system at Indore, Madhya Pradesh. The hydrogen blended natural gas will be supplied to Avantika Gas Limited, one of GAIL’s Joint Venture Company with HPCL, which is operating in Indore. This is a pilot project to establish the feasibility of blending hydrogen in City Gas Distribution (CGD) network.


The Government of India has done ‘Conversion or Switch operations’ with which institution?

[B] Reserve Bank of India
[C] International Court of Justice
[D] World Bank

Right answer is:- Reserve Bank of India

Brief:- The Government of India has done ‘Conversion or Switch operations’ with the Reserve Bank of India, for an amount of ₹1,19,701 crore. The transaction involved buying back securities maturing in FY 2022-23, FY 2023-24 and FY 2024-25 from the Reserve Bank and issuing fresh securities for equivalent market value. This conversion will help to reduce the redemption pressure on the Government.


Which Union Ministry released a Draft Report on InDEA 2.0?

[A] Ministry of Electronics and Information and Technology
[B] Ministry of Science and Technology
[C] Ministry of Finance
[D] Ministry of Corporate Affairs

Right answer is:- Ministry of Electronics and Information and Technology

Brief:- Ministry of Electronics and Information and Technology (MeitY) has released a draft report on India Digital Ecosystem Architecture 2.0 or the InDEA 2.0. InDEA 2.0 proposes a model of ‘Federated Digital Identities’, which seeks to optimise the number of digital identities that a citizen needs to have. The draft report is headed by former MeitY secretary J Satyanaraya as Chairman and current secretary Ajay P Sawhney as Co-Chairman.


‘Bloody Sunday’ is a commemorative event marked by which country?

[B] Ireland
[C] Germany
[D] Italy

Right answer is:- Ireland

Brief:- Northern Ireland is marking 50 years of Bloody Sunday, on which British soldiers fired upon a crowd of protesters, killing 14 people. Irish Prime Minister Micheál Martin also tweeted that the country is paying tribute to the families of the victims. The violence took place during a march organized by the Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association.


Which Indian state/UT got its first-ever good freight train connectivity post independence?

[A] Goa
[B] Manipur
[C] Ladakh
[D] Arunachal Pradesh

Right answer is:- Manipur

Brief:- Manipur got its first-ever good freight train connectivity post independence, as the first freight train arrived at the Rani Gaidinliu station of the north-eastern state. Earlier, a passenger train from Silchar in Assam reached the Bongaichungpao railway station in Manipur. This is a part of the 111 km long Jiribam-Imphal new line project, which will connect Imphal with Guwahati.


‘Oceans Melting Greenland airborne mission’ is associated with which country?

[A] Russia
[B] Israel
[D] China

Right answer is:- USA

Brief:- NASA’s ‘Oceans Melting Greenland airborne mission’ has found that Greenland’s glaciers that empty into the ocean, such as Apusiaajik Glacier, are at greater risk of rapid ice loss. It revealed that ice loss from Greenland’s ice sheet contributes more to the global rise of the oceans than any other single source. If all of Greenland’s ice sheet were to melt, global sea levels would rise by about 24 feet (7.4 meters).


Which is the nodal agency of the new scheme ‘PM-DevINE’?

[B] North-Eastern Council
[C] NITI Aayog

Right answer is:- North-Eastern Council

Brief:- A new scheme, Prime Minister’s Development Initiative for North-East, PM-DevINE was announced by the Union Minister for Finance Nirmala Sitharaman while presenting the Union Budget 2022-23. PM-DevINE will be implemented through the North-Eastern Council. An initial allocation of Rs. 1,500 crore will be made for the new scheme. It will fund infrastructure and social development projects based on needs of the North-East.


UNCITRAL, seen in the news, is a UN Agency associated with which field?

[A] Children Welfare
[B] Climate Change
[C] Insolvency
[D] Heritage

Right answer is:- Insolvency

Brief:- United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) Model Law on Cross border Insolvency (1997) is the most widely accepted legal framework on cross-border insolvency. The Economic Survey suggested the adoption of UNCITRAL Law with certain modifications. It has been adopted by 49 countries such as Singapore, UK, US, South Africa and Korea. Insolvency Law Committee had recommended the adoption of UNCITRAL.


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Current Affairs February 2022 Volume 1

Current Affairs February 2022 MCQs Format

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Which State/UT has approved Ex-Gratia relief of Rs 20,000 per acre to farmers?

[A] West Bengal
[B] Delhi
[C] Punjab
[D] Uttar Pradesh

Right answer is:- Delhi

Brief:- The Delhi cabinet approved ex-Gratia relief of Rs 20,000 per acre to farmers whose lands were damaged by rains last year. In September-October 2021, several acres of farmland were damaged due to heavy rain and water-logging in fields. If the damage is found to be 70% or less, the compensation will be 70% of the amount. If the assessed loss is more than 70%, Rs 20,000 per acre will be paid.


French Polynesia is an overseas collectivity of France, located in which continent?

[A] Asia
[B] Oceania
[C] South America
[D] Africa

Right answer is:- Oceania

Brief:- French Polynesia is an overseas collectivity of France, comprising more than 100 islands in the South Pacific in Oceania. Scuba divers with the UNESCO have discovered a massive reef of giant rose-shaped corals off the coast of Tahiti, the largest island in French Polynesia. The structure is in pristine condition and has remained healthy despite recent coral bleaching events.


India adopted the ‘Digital Work Plan 2022’ along with which bloc?

[C] G-20
[D] European Commission

Right answer is:- ASEAN

Brief:- India-ASEAN Digital Work Plan 2022 was approved in the 2nd ASEAN Digital Ministers meeting held in the virtual mode. The Work Plan focuses on tackling the use of stolen and counterfeit mobile handsets and WiFi Access network interface, for the public interest. It also includes knowledge sharing in emerging areas ICT such as Internet of Things, 5G, Advanced Satellite Communication and Cyber Forensics.


What is the name of the Tropical Storm which made landfall on three southern African countries?

[A] Rina
[B] Ana
[C] Boss
[D] Sue

Right answer is:- Ana

Brief:- Tropical Storm Ana hit three southern African countries, leading to a death count of 70. The storm made landfall in Madagascar before entering into Mozambique and Malawi. Madagascar reported 41 dead and 18 others were killed in Mozambique and 11 in Malawi. The Emergency teams were battling to repair damaged infrastructure and help tens of thousands of victims.


As of 2022, which country is the top Steel Producer in the world?

[A] India
[B] China
[D] Australia

Right answer is:- China

Brief:- According to World Steel Association, India’s crude steel production rose by 18 per cent to 118 million tonne (MT) in 2021. India is the second largest steel producing nation, as it manufactured 100.3 MT steel in 2020 and China produced 1 064.7 MT of steel in the same year. China recorded a 3 per cent decline to 1 032.8 MT in 2021.


Which country launched the Hwasong-12 mid-range ballistic missile?

[A] China
[B] Japan
[C] North Korea
[D] South Korea

Right answer is:- North Korea

Brief:- North Korea has confirmed that it fired a Hwasong-12 mid-range ballistic missile. This is the first time it has tested a weapon of that size since 2017. Japan and South Korea detected the launch of the intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM), which is the seventh weapons test done by North Korea this month.


Geological Survey of India (GSI) has approved to set up India’s first Geo-Park in which state?

[A] Maharashtra
[B] Goa
[C] Madhya Pradesh
[D] Telangana

Right answer is:- Madhya Pradesh

Brief:- The Geological Survey of India (GSI) has approved to set up India’s first Geo-Park at Lamheta village on the banks of the Narmada River in Madhya Pradesh. A Geo-Park is a unified area which aims to protect the geological heritage in a sustainable way. The site is already in the UNESCO Geo-heritage tentative list. Several dinosaur fossils had been found in the Narmada valley, in the Bhedaghat-Lameta Ghat area of Jabalpur.


Masada Fortress, which was seen in the news, is located in which country?

[A] India
[B] Sri Lanka
[C] Israel

Right answer is:- Israel

Brief:- Masada Fortress, which is located in Israel, is a symbol of Jewish Heroism. Israel’s Ambassador to India Naor Gilon shared a video that showed the Masada Fortress in Israel illuminated with lights. It commemorates the India-Israel Ties, as the two countries celebrate 30 years of diplomatic relations. Earlier both the countries unveiled a commemorative logo.


Which Ministry is the nodal agency of the ‘Fly Ash Management and Utilisation Mission’?

[A] Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change
[B] Ministry of Coal
[C] Ministry of Power
[D] Ministry of New and Renewable Energy

Right answer is:- Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change

Brief:- The National Green Tribunal (NGT) directed the constitution of a ‘Fly Ash Management and Utilisation Mission’ in its order. The Secretary of MoEF&CC will be the nodal agency. It aims to coordinate and monitor issues relating to the handling and disposal of fly ash and related issues. It is to be jointly headed by the Secretaries of Ministry of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Ministry of Coal and Power and Chief Secretaries of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh.


Which newly discovered species has been named after the pandemic as ‘Humbertium covidum’?

[A] Snake
[B] Flatworm
[C] House Rat
[D] House Fly

Right answer is:- Flatworm

Brief:- Scientists have discovered an alien hammerhead flatworm species that looks like a miniature king cobra. The researchers found the creatures hunting snails in France and Italy. The flatworm has been named after the COVID-19 pandemic as Humbertium covidum’. These new hammerhead flatworms are also among two newly described species found in countries that are not part of their native range so they were very likely introduced there by humans.

January Current Affairs 4

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Volume- 4

Hello Everybody welcome to

The Current Affairs Gyan

Today we gonna discuss important current affairs of January 2022.

Question:- 1

Which Union Ministry instituted the ‘Swachh Vidyalaya Puraskar’?

[A] Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs
[B] Ministry of Rural Development
[C] Ministry of Education
[D] Ministry of Women and Child Development

Right answer is:- Ministry of Education

Brief:- The Swachh Vidyalaya Puraskar was instituted by the Ministry of Education, formerly called as the Ministry of Human Resource Development, in 2016 to recognize the excellence in sanitation and hygiene practice in schools The Swachh Vidyalaya Puraskar (SVP) 2021 – 2022 was launched virtually. The sub-categories are: Water, Sanitation, Hand Washing with soap, Operation and Maintenance, behaviour change and capacity building and the newly added category on COVID-19 preparedness and response.

Question:- 2

Kumbalangi, India’s first-ever sanitary napkin-free village, is located in which state?

[A] Tamil Nadu
[B] Kerala
[C] Karnataka
[D] Odisha

Right answer is:-  Kerala

Brief:- Kumbalangi became the first-ever sanitary napkin-free village in the country. It is located in the Ernakulam district of Kerala. It is part of ‘Avalkayi’ (for her) campaign being implemented in the Ernakulam constituency, under which menstrual cups are distributed to women aged 18 and above. Kumbalanghi was declared a model village by the Kerala Governor. It also holds the title of India’s first model tourist village.

Question:- 3

Sabine Weiss, who passed away recently, was associated with which field?

[A] Politics
[B] Business
[C] Photography
[D] Sports

Right answer is:-  Photography

Brief:- Veteran photographer Sabine Weiss, renowned for her images on the streets of Paris, passed away at the age of 97. She was the last surviving member of France’s humanist photography school. The photographer moved to Paris after World War Two. She was also regarded as pioneer of Street photography, in which she captured the condition of ordinary people in Paris.

Question:- 4

Abdalla Hamdok, who announced his resignation recently, was the Prime Minister of which country?

[A] Israel
[B] Sudan
[C] Syria
[D] Ghana

Right answer is:-  Sudan

Brief:- Sudan’s Prime Minister Abdalla Hamdok announced his resignation amid political deadlock and widespread pro-democracy protests. As part of an agreement with the military after the October Coup, former UN official Hamdok was appointed as the Prime Minister.  Now the military coup has again hindered the country’s transition to democratic rule.

Question:- 5

‘PM’s Excellence Award’ is being awarded for which sector?

[A] Sports
[B] Public Administration
[C] Entrepreneurship
[D] Education

Right answer is:-  Public Administration

Brief:- The Department of Administrative Reforms & Public Grievances (DARPG) awards the “Prime Minister’s Awards for Excellence in Public Administration” since 2006. Union Minister Jitendra Singh has recently launched the Web Portal for PM’s Excellence Award, whose registrations began. The prize money was doubled this year from 10 lakh rupees to 20 lakh rupees. The Scheme was restructured in 2020, to recognize the performance of District Collectors towards economic development of the District.

Question:- 6

‘Houthi movement’, which was seen in the news, is based at which country?

[A] Yemen
[B] Syria
[C] Qatar
[D] Iraq

Right answer is:-  Yemen

Brief:- ‘Houthi movement’ is an Islamist political and armed movement which emerged from Northern Yemen in the 1990s. The Iran-aligned Houthi movement said it had carried out an attack on the United Arab Emirates. Abu Dhabi police said three fuel tanker trucks exploded near storage facilities of oil firm ADNOC and a fire broke out at a construction site at Abu Dhabi International Airport.  

Question:- 7

Which country proposed ‘P3 (Pro-Planet People) movement’ during the WEF Davos Agenda 2022?

[B] Russia
[C] India
[D] UK

Right answer is:-  India

Brief:- Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi introduced the “P3 (Pro-Planet People) movement” to underline India’s climate change commitments at World Economic Forum’s (WEF) Davos Agenda 2022. The World Economic Forum’s Davos Agenda Virtual Summit hosted world leaders and heads of important institutions around the world to discuss climate action, pandemic recovery, and socio-economic resilience.

Question:- 8

Which Union Ministry is implementing ‘Gram Ujala programme’?

[A] Ministry of Power
[B] Ministry of Rural Development
[C] Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare
[D] Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change

Right answer is:-  Ministry of Power

Brief:- Gram Ujala scheme is a flagship scheme of the Union Ministry of Power. Convergence Energy Services Limited (CESL) is providing high quality LED bulbs with 3 years guarantee at a cost of INR 10 per bulb in exchange of working incandescent bulbs. Recently, CESL has achieved a remarkable milestone of distributing 50 lakhs LED bulbs under Project Crore of Gram Ujala programme.

Question:- 9

The Koppal Toy Cluster (KTC), which was seen in the news recently, is being developed in which state?

[A] Kerala
[B] Karnataka
[C] Andhra Pradesh
[D] West Bengal

Right answer is:-  Karnataka

Brief:- Koppal is a town in the district of Koppal in Karnataka. The Koppal Toy Cluster (KTC), which is being developed in the state, is the first such infrastructure in the country. The Toy Cluster will be operational in March 2022, spanning an area of over 400 acres of land. It will include the complete value chain from toy making, production of packaging, tool making, paint making, electronics and other accessories.

Question:- 10

Which country is the first to successfully conduct a human heart transplant from a genetically modified pig?

[A] China
[B] Russia
[D] UK

Right answer is:-  USA

Brief:- Doctors at the University of Maryland Medical Center, USA has successfully conducted a human heart transplant from a genetically modified pig. David Bennett, 57 became the first person in the world to get such a heart transplant. This procedure was carried out on the basis that Mr. Bennett, who has terminal heart disease, would otherwise have died.

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January Current Affairs 2022 Volume 3

January Current Affairs 2022 Volume 3

January 2022 Current Affairs Volume 3
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Volume- 3

Hello Everybody welcome to

The Current Affairs Gyan

Today we gonna discuss important current affairs of January 2022.

Question:- 1

Which state/UT recognised Takht Damdama Sahib, as the fifth Takht of Sikhs?

[A] Punjab
[B] Delhi
[C] Bihar
[D] Uttar Pradesh

Right answer is:-  Delhi

Brief:- Delhi Assembly passed an amendment Bill to the Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Act, 1971, to recognise Takht Damdama Sahib as the fifth Takht of Sikhs. A Takht, or a throne, is a seat of temporal authority for Sikhs. There are five Sikh Takhts, three in Punjab and one each in Maharashtra and Bihar. The amendment also adds one more ex officio member in the Delhi Sikh Gurdwara Managament Committee (DSGMC) house from the earlier 4.

Question:- 2

Which state signed MoU with Singapore-based LNG Alliance Company, to set up its first LNG Terminal?

[A] Kerala
[B] Karnataka
[C] Telangana
[D] Gujarat

Right answer is:-  Karnataka

Brief:- The Karnataka state government has signed a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with Singapore-based LNG Alliance Company for setting up the State’s first LNG Terminal. The first such terminal will be set up in Mangaluru, in association with New Mangalore Port Trust (NMPT) with an investment of ₹2,250 crore.

Question:- 3

The subsidiary of which Indian company signed agreements on jointly developing the Trincomalee oil tank farm?

[A] Indian Oil Corporation
[B] Bharat Petroleum
[C] Hindustan Petroleum
[D] Oil and Natural Gas Corporation

Right answer is:-  Indian Oil Corporation

Brief:- Lanka IOC, Ceylon Petroleum Corporation and the Government of Sri Lanka signed lease agreements on jointly developing the Trincomalee oil tank farm. Indian Oil Corporation’s subsidiary Lanka IOC is set to run the 14 oil storage tanks while CPC would run 24 tanks. Trinco Petroleum Terminal Pvt. Ltd would develop the remaining 61 tanks, in a joint venture where 51% stakes will be held by CPC and 49% by Lanka IOC.

Question:- 4

Which New Technology sends signals to power plants every four seconds to maintain a constant frequency in India?

[A] Automatic Generation Control
[B] Automatic Frequency Control
[C] Frequent Frequency Control
[D] Semi Layered Frequency Control

Right answer is:-  Automatic Generation Control

Brief:- The Union Minister for Power and new and renewable energy Raj Kumar Singh has dedicated a new technology named Automatic Generation Control (AGC) to the nation. This technology would send signals to power plants every four seconds, in order to maintain a constant frequency thereby maintaining the reliability of India’s power generation system.

Question:- 5

 Which state signed agreement with ‘National Dairy Development Board’ to create a Rs 2,000-crore Dairy joint venture?

[A] Punjab
[B] Assam
[C] Gujarat
[D] Arunachal Pradesh

Right answer is:-  Assam

Brief:- The Assam government and National Dairy Development Board signed an agreement to create a Rs 2,000-crore joint venture for holistic development of the sector in the state. As per the MoU, a joint venture company will be set up for Rs 2,000 crore with a target of processing 10 lakh litres of milk from six new units in seven years. Foundation stone of Dairy’s expansion initiative under the World Bank-funded ‘Assam Agribusiness and Rural Transportation Project’ was also laid.

Question:- 6

The ‘Artificial Sun’ is an ambitious project of which country?

[A] Russia
[C] China
[D] India

Right answer is:-  China

Brief:- China is conducting experiment with an “artificial sun,” which is dubbed as Experiential Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), for making way to clean energy in the future. The experiments started in December 2021 and is likely to last until June, 2022.

Question:- 7

How many states are covered in the second phase of the Green Energy Corridor scheme?

[A] Three
[B] Five
[C] Seven
[D] Ten

Right answer is:-  Seven

Brief:- The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) approved the second phase of the Green Energy Corridor scheme. Under the scheme, over 20 GW of Renewable energy projects will be installed across seven states namely Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh in this phase. The estimated cost of the scheme is Rs 12,031 crore, and 33 per cent of the project cost will be provided as central financial assistance.


Sanjay Lake is a wetland located in which state/UT?

[A] Karnataka

[B] New Delhi
[C] Himachal Pradesh
[D] Andhra Pradesh

Right answer is:-  New Delhi

Brief:- The Asian Waterbird Census (AWC) is being carried out across seven wetlands in the NCR — Hastinapur Wildlife Sanctuary, Dhanauri and Surajpur wetlands in Greater Noida, Delhi Zoo and Sanjay Lake, Okhla Bird Sanctuary, Najafgarh Jheel and the Yamuna River. The census recorded only 13 species in the Sanjay Lake, down from 17 species recorded from 2019 to 2021. The two migratory species recorded were the Great Cormorant, which migrates from Southeast Asia, and the Eurasian Coot, which migrates from Temperate Asia.

Question:- 9

‘Electric Bike Taxi Scheme’ is the initiative of which Indian state/UT?

[A] Tamil Nadu
[B] Odisha
[C] Telangana
[D] Karnataka

Right answer is:-  Karnataka

Brief:- The ‘Karnataka Electric Bike Taxi Scheme’ was launched in Karnataka six months ago. It allowed private players, individuals, firms, and aggregators to run electric bike taxis in Bengaluru. Citizens can avail of the service for a maximum distance of 10 km. However, the Transport Department has received only one application for a licence. The state has not yet fixed the bike taxi fares.

Question:- 10

‘Global Economic Prospects Report’ is the flagship publication of which institution?

[A] World Bank
[B] International Monetary Fund
[C] World Economic Forum
[D] Asian Development Bank

Right answer is:-  World Bank

Brief:- ‘Global Economic Prospects report’ is the flagship report of World Bank. As per the latest report released, India’s economy is estimated to contract by 3.2% in the current fiscal year 2020-21. The report also expects the Indian economy would grow at 3.1% in the next fiscal year. In the earlier report released in April, the GDP growth rate for this fiscal year was predicted at 1.5%-2.8% growth. The growth of next year was also earlier predicted at 6.1%. The report also highlighted that global economy will contract by 5.2% in 2020.

January Current Affairs 2

January Current Affairs 2


Current Affairs January Vol. 2


Which is the only authorised institution to sell Electoral bonds in India?

[A] Reserve Bank of India
[B] State Bank of India
[C] NITI Aayog
[D] Supreme Court

Right answer is:-  State Bank of India

Brief:- State Bank of India (SBI) is the only authorised institution to sell Electoral bonds in India. An electoral bond will be valid for 15 days from the date of issue.


Which Ministry announced helpline numbers to help supply chains for e-commerce entities?

[A] Ministry of Commerce and Industry
[B] Ministry of MSME
[C] Ministry of Labour and Employment
[D] Ministry of Electronics and IT

Right answer is:-  Ministry of Commerce and Industry

Brief:- The Department for Promotion of Industry and Internal Trade (DPIIT), under the Commerce Ministry announced helpline numbers to help supply chains for e-commerce entities. The hiplines will aid the manufacturing, transportation, distribution, wholesale or e-commerce companies for difficulties in transportation and distribution of goods or mobilisation of resources.

Question:- 3

 Which is the most innovative educational institute of India in the technical category, as per the ARIIA 2021 ranking?

[A] IIT Kanpur
[B] IIT Madras
[C] IIT Bombay
[D] IIT Delhi

Right answer is:-  IIT Madras

Brief:- In the Atal Ranking of Institutions on Innovation Achievement 2021 award list released, IIT Madras was named the most innovative educational institute of India in the technical category. IIT-M has retained the top rank for three years in a row. Kalinga Institute of Industrial Technology, College of Engineering, Pune and PSG College of Technology topped in their respective categories. Under ‘non-technical institutions’, the top central universities were IGNOU and IIM, Kozhikode.

Question:- 4

‘NEAT 3.0’ is a platform associated with which Union Ministry?

[A] Ministry of Education
[B] Ministry of Labour and Employment
[C] Ministry of Commerce and Industry
[D] Ministry of Skill Development and Entrepreneurship

Right answer is:-  Ministry of  Education

Brief:- Union Education Minister Dharmendra Pradhan launched National Educational Alliance for Technology NEAT 3.0. It is a single platform to provide best quality ed-tech solutions and courses to students of the country. The Minister also launched AICTE prescribed technical books in regional languages. It uses Artificial Intelligence for a personalised learning experience for better learning outcomes.

Question:- 5

The new COVID variant named IHU (B.1.640.2), has been discovered in which country?

[B] France
[C] Italy
[D] South Africa

Right answer is:-  France

Brief:- ‘IHU’, the B.1.640.2 variant has been reported by researchers at institute IHU Mediterranee Infection. At least 12 cases are detected in the Southern France.

Question:- 6

Which institution released the ‘Compendium on the innovations on technology’?

[A] World Bank
[B] NITI Aayog
[C] International Monetary Fund
[D] World Economic Forum

Right answer is:-  NITI Aayog

Brief:- NITI Aayog’s Atal Innovation Mission released the ‘Compendium on the innovations on technology’. ‘Innovations For You’ Compendium focuses on the start-ups and innovations in the field of Agriculture and Allied services. It features the 70 start-ups supported by Atal Incubation Centres (AICs) of AIM. ‘The Ingenious Tinkerers’ includes 41 innovations from Atal Tinkering Lab (ATL).  


Which country is the new member of the BRICS New Development Bank (NDB)?

[A] Italy
[B] Egypt
[C] Israel
[D] Bangladesh

Right answer is:-  Egypt

Brief:- The BRICS New Development Bank (NDB) announced that it will add Egypt as its new member. NDB was established by BRICS nations, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa, in the year 2015. Egypt is the fourth new member admitted into NDB, after Bangladesh, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Uruguay. Marcos Troyjo is the President of the NDB.

Question:- 8

‘Plan Bee’, which was seen in the news recently, is associated with which Union Ministry?

[A] Ministry of Railways
[B] Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change
[C] Ministry of Agriculture and Farmers Welfare
[D] Ministry of MSME

Right answer is:-  Ministry of Railways

Brief:- ‘Plan Bee’ was first implemented by the Northeast Frontier Railway (NFR) as a unique method to keep elephants away from railway tracks. Union Minister for Railways  Ashwini Vaishnaw informed that the Railways is set to implement ‘Plan Bee’ throughout the country. It uses an amplifying system to imitate the buzz of a swarm of honey bees.

Question:- 9

IRDAI has announced how many Insurers as Domestic Systemically Important Insurers (D-SIIs) for 2021-22?

[A] One
[B] Three
[C] Four
[D] Five

Right answer is:-  Three

Brief:- Insurance regulator IRDAI has announced that the state-owned LIC, General Insurance Corporation and New India Assurance have been identified as Domestic Systemically Important Insurers (D-SIIs) for 2021-22. D-SIIs are perceived as insurers that are too big or too important to fail’ (TBTF). Due to their size, market importance and domestic and global inter connectedness, their failure would cause a massive impact in domestic financial system.

Question:- 10

Under ‘India Semiconductor Mission’, financial support is provided for how many years?

[A] Three
[B] Five
[C] Six
[D] Ten

Right answer is:-  Six

Brief:- Union Electronics and Information Technology Minister Ashwini Vaishnaw launched the India Semiconductor Mission (ISM). ISM is an independent business division within the Digital India Corporation. It aims to build a robust semiconductor and display ecosystem in India. A financial support of up to 50 per cent of the project cost is approved for setting up variants of semiconductor fab in India. A financial support for six years is given from the date of approval.

January Current Affairs 1

January Current Affairs 1

Current Affair Questions


Question: 1

NITI Aayog released the “North Eastern Region District SDG Index”, with support from which institution?

[C] World Bank

Right Answer is:- UNDP

Brief: NITI Aayog released the “North Eastern Region District SDG Index”, with technical support from the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). The index measures the performance of the District of the eight North Eastern States. A District wise index is being prepared in the country, for the first time. This SDG Index will be used as a base for planning various development and welfare activities, education, health care.

Question : 2

Which institution released the ‘Women and girls left behind: Glaring gaps in pandemic responses’ report?

[A] World Economic Forum
[B] World Bank
[C] UN Women
[D] NITI Aayog

Right Answer is:- UN Women

Brief: United Nations Women recently released a new report titled ‘Women and girls left behind: Glaring gaps in pandemic responses’. As per the report, women were less likely to receive COVID-19 relief from government. At least 29 per cent of working mothers living with children lost their jobs compared to 20 per cent of working men living with children. Single women living with children were left behind more, as per the report.

Question : 3

E-Daakhil Portal, which was seen in the news, is associated with which sector?

[A] Right to Information
[B] Consumer Complaints
[C] Life Certificate
[D] Goods and Services Tax

Right Answer is:- Consumer Complaints.

Brief: Union Government has set up the E-Daakhil Portal, which provides a fast and easy facility to consumers around the country to conveniently approach the relevant consumer forum. As per the recent rules released by the Consumer Affairs Ministry, District commissions has jurisdiction for complaints where value of goods or services not exceeding ₹50 lakh. State commissions can look on complaints in range of ₹50 lakh- ₹2 crores. National Commission will have jurisdiction exceeding 2 crore rupees. Consumers can also file complaint electronically.

Question: 4

Which country launched the ‘Simorgh’ satellite carrier rocket with research devices?

[A] Bangladesh
[B] Iran
[C] Israel

Right Answer is:- Iran.

Brief: Iran launched a rocket to send three research satellites into space on 30th December 2021. It was the Simorgh (Phoenix) satellite carrier rocket that had launched the three research devices at an altitude of 470 km (290 miles) and at a speed of 7,350 metres per second.

Question: 5

The largest single transfer of white rhinos, which was recently undertaken, transferred 30 rhinos from ………….. to ………………. .

[A] South Africa to Rwanda
[B] USA to Rwanda
[C] Kenya to USA
[D] Russia to Rwanda

Right Answer is:- South Africa to Rwanda

Brief: Thirty white rhinos were transferred from South Africa to Rwanda in a Boeing 747 chartered plane. This is the largest single transfer of white rhinos ever undertaken. The rhinoceros species is threatened by illegal poaching. Southern white rhino, one of two subspecies of white rhino, is considered “almost endangered” by the International Union for Conversation of Nature (IUCN).

Question: 6

Which state government slashed Rs 25 per litre on petrol and diesel prices for two-wheelers owned by the poor?

[A] Odisha
[B] Tamil Nadu
[C] Jharkhand
[D] Kerala

Right Answer is:- Jharkhand.

Brief: Jharkhand Chief Minister Hemant Soren announced concession of Rs 25 per litre on petrol and diesel prices for two-wheelers owned by the poor. The concession will be given for 10 litres of petrol for every month. An amount of Rs 25 per litre would be transferred to the bank account of poor ration card holders.

Question: 7

What is the deadline for KYC updation for bank accounts, as per the recent notification of RBI?

[A] January 31, 2022
[B] March 31, 2022
[C] June 30, 2022
[D] September 30, 2022

Right Answer is:- March 31, 2022.

Brief: The Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has extended the deadline for KYC in bank accounts till March 31, 2022, from the previous deadline of December 31, 2021. The deadline has been extended again due to the surge in the Omicron variant of the coronavirus in the country.

Question: 8

What is the GST to be collected by Food aggregators like Swiggy and Zomato from January 1, 2022?

[A] 5%
[B] 8%
[C] 12%
[D] 18%

Right Answer is:- 5%.

Question: 9

What is the existing annual income limit for identification of economically weaker section (EWS)?

[A] Rs 6 lakh
[B] Rs 8 lakh
[C] Rs 9 lakh
[D] Rs 10 lakh

Right Answer is:- Rs 8 lakh.

Question : 10

Which Indian company has commissioned India’s largest solar power project at Rajasthan?

[A] Adani Power
[B] Azure Power
[C] Tata Power
[D] ReNew Power

Right Answer is:- Azure Power

Brief: “Azure Power announced the successful commissioning of its largest project- 600 MWs Interstate Transmission System (ISTS) connected solar project, allocated by Solar Energy Corporation of India (SECI),”